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Unleashing the Hidden Costs of AWS RDS: A Comprehensive Guide to Pricing

Unleashing the Hidden Costs of AWS RDS: A Comprehensive Guide to Pricing

Sandro Volpicella's photo
Sandro Volpicella
ยทFeb 7, 2023ยท

8 min read

Table of contents

Introduction to AWS RDS

What is AWS RDS?

AWS RDS, or Amazon Relational Database Service, is a fully-managed database service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It allows developers and businesses to quickly set up, operate, and scale relational databases in the cloud, without the hassle of managing the underlying infrastructure.

With RDS, users can choose from a variety of database engines, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, MariaDB, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server.

AWS RDS supports six major database engines

Benefits of Using AWS RDS

AWS RDS offers several benefits over traditional on-premise databases or self-hosted databases in the cloud. Some of the key benefits include:

  • Easy setup and management: RDS automates time-consuming administration tasks such as database setup, backups, and software patching, freeing up time for developers and IT staff to focus on other important tasks.

  • Scalability: RDS allows users to easily scale their database resources, such as storage and compute capacity, up or down based on their needs.

    AWS RDS allows you to scale storage automatically

  • High availability: RDS automatically manages failover and replication, ensuring that the database remains available even in the event of a failure.

    RDS makes it easy to build high-available database solutions

  • Cost-effective: RDS pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, so users only pay for the resources they consume. This makes it a cost-effective solution for businesses of all sizes.

Understanding AWS RDS Pricing

One of the key benefits of using AWS RDS is its ease of use and flexibility in terms of pricing. In this section, we will take a closer look at the cost components of AWS RDS.

If you want to estimate your cost of RDS, head over to the pricing calculator.

Cost Components of AWS RDS

The cost of using AWS RDS is comprised of the following components:

Instance Hourly Price

The hourly price of an AWS RDS instance depends on the type of instance you choose, as well as the region in which you launch it. There are several different instance types to choose from, each with its own set of hardware specifications and pricing. Instance types have different performances. Ranging from general-purpose instances (e.g. T4) up to memory-optimized ones like the R and X classes.

You can estimate your instance class pricing in the pricing calculator. Let's see an example:

Example instance classes are:

  • db.t4.medium: a general-purpose instance with 4GB of memory and 2 vCPUs: $72.80

  • db.r4.2xlarge: a high-performing instance with 61GB of memory and 8 vCPUs: $821.05

The instance class is one of the major factors of the costs.

Instance Pricing Model

While choosing the instance you can choose between two pricing models:

  1. On-Demand: Get and remove your instance at any time

  2. Reserved: Reserve a DB instance between one and three years

The main difference between both models is in the time you will dedicate to RDS. If you know you need your database for the next three years and you are sure about your requirements, choosing the reserved mode is often much cheaper.

If you are not, go with the on-demand mode.

The price difference is huge. But with Reserved mode, you can't change your instance type easily and you need to pay your instances upfront.

Storage Costs

When it comes to using AWS RDS, you'll want to make sure you understand how storage costs work. After all, you don't want to be caught off guard by unexpected charges on your bill. So, let's know them in more detail. Storage costs are a bit more complicated compared to other services.

AWS RDS supports three different storage options

There are three different storage types:

  1. Magnetic Storage: Legacy storage type

  2. General Purpose Storage: Default storage type on SSD

  3. Provisioned IOPS Storage: High-performing applications

Magnetic storage

Magnetic Storage was an option for RDS instances that are not actively used anymore. You can choose this option for backward compatibility but it is not recommended anymore.

Costs for magnetic storage are GB x $0.10 x instances. For 500 GB of magnetic storage, it would be: 500 x $0.10 x 1= $50.00

You have many limitations with magnetic storage like

  • Not being able to properly autoscale

  • Maximum size limitations

  • Performance

If you create a new database make sure to check out the other storage options like General Purpose storage.

General Purpose Storage (SSD):

This is the standard option for storing your data in RDS. General Purpose Storage saves your data on an SSD and is a cost-effective storage type. General Purpose Storage is normally only used for development or testing workloads.

The size of general-purpose storage depends on the engine:

  • MariaDB, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL: 20 GiB - 64 TiB

  • SQL Server, Standard, Web, Express: 20 GiB - 16 TiB

You can also differentiate general purpose into two versions:

  1. gp2 storage: No high storage performance

  2. gp3 storage: Better storage performance

The actual costs are $0.115 per GB.

50 GB for 1 instance would cost: 50GB x $0.115 = $5.75

Provisioned IOPS Storage:

This is the type of storage you should use if you have a production DB. Provisioned IOPS (input/output operations per second) gives you fast responses and consistent throughput. As a tradeoff, it is more expensive.

To calculate the cost of provisioned IOPS you need to know how many operations you will have in your DB per second.

If we take an example of 1,000 IOPS and 50 GB storage we would pay the following:

50 GB x $0.125 = $6.25 (storage)
1,000 IOPS x $0.10 = $100.00 (IOPS)

In this storage model, you pay for both IOPS and storage.

Data Transfer Costs

The third component to consider is Data Transfer Costs. Data transfer costs are likely to be overseen in all AWS services so make sure to understand them.

AWS RDS Data Transfer

Data transfer costs are incurred when data is moved in and out of the AWS Data Center. The cost of data transfer varies depending on the amount of data being transferred and the region in which you are located. Typically you differentiate between:

  • Inbound Data Transfer: Data coming in from the internet or another region

  • Outbound Data Transfer: Data going out to the internet or another region

You can also use the AWS Pricing Calculator to calculate data transfer costs.

Other Cost Factors

In addition to the cost components listed above, there are several other cost factors to consider when using AWS RDS. For example, if you use RDS Backup or Multi-AZ deployments the costs will be higher.

It is important to carefully consider all of the cost components when determining the overall cost of using AWS RDS.

Cost Optimization Strategies for AWS RDS

Choosing the Right Instance Type

Choosing the right instance type is a crucial step in controlling costs in AWS RDS. It is important to understand your database's performance requirements, such as the amount of memory and CPU needed, to select the appropriate instance type. The most cost-effective option is to choose the smallest instance type that meets your performance requirements.

Selecting the Right Storage Option

Another way to optimize costs in AWS RDS is to choose the right storage option. The storage options available in AWS RDS include magnetic, general purpose (SSD), and provisioned IOPS (SSD). It is important to choose the right storage option based on your database's performance and I/O requirements. The most cost-effective option is to use general-purpose storage for databases that don't require high performance and provisioned IOPS storage for better performance.

Monitoring and Managing Resource Usage

It is important to monitor and manage resource usage in AWS RDS to optimize costs. This includes monitoring database instances, storage, and data transfer usage. You can identify opportunities to reduce costs by optimizing resource usage or choosing more cost-effective instance types or storage options by monitoring resource usage.

Shut down test or dev instances

As simple as it sounds, make sure to shut down unused instances. Especially in test and development environments, it makes sense to make use of automated schedules to shut them down.

Utilizing Reserved Instances

Finally, another cost optimization strategy for AWS RDS is to utilize reserved instances. Reserved instances provide a significant discount compared to on-demand instances, making them a cost-effective option for databases that run consistently over a long time. When purchasing reserved instances, it is essential to choose the appropriate instance type and storage option to ensure that you are getting the best value for your investment.

Conclusion: AWS RDS Pricing Simplified

At the end of this article, we hope that you have a better understanding of the AWS RDS pricing and how it can help you make an informed decision for your business.

Here are some of the key takeaways from what we have covered:

  • AWS RDS pricing is based on several cost components, including instance hourly price, storage costs, data transfer costs, and other factors.

  • You can optimize your AWS RDS cost by choosing the right instance type, selecting the right storage option, shutting down test instances, monitoring and managing resource usage, and utilizing reserved instances.

In conclusion, with AWS RDS, you get a highly scalable, managed database service that takes care of the heavy lifting for you. By leveraging its many features, you can focus on delivering great customer experiences without worrying about managing the underlying infrastructure.

So, if you're looking for a cost-effective and highly efficient database solution, look no further than AWS RDS.

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